[v7,2/5] dma: add channels support

Message ID 20181110210649.8992-3-grygorii.strashko@ti.com
State New
Headers show
Series
  • dma: add channels support
Related show

Commit Message

Grygorii Strashko Nov. 10, 2018, 9:06 p.m.
From: Álvaro Fernández Rojas <noltari@gmail.com>

This adds channels support for dma controllers that have multiple channels
which can transfer data to/from different devices (enet, usb...).

DMA channle API:
 dma_get_by_index()
 dma_get_by_name()
 dma_request()
 dma_free()
 dma_enable()
 dma_disable()
 dma_prepare_rcv_buf()
 dma_receive()
 dma_send()

Reviewed-by: Tom Rini <trini@konsulko.com>
Signed-off-by: Álvaro Fernández Rojas <noltari@gmail.com>
[grygorii.strashko@ti.com: drop unused dma_get_by_index_platdata(),
 add metadata to send/receive ops, add dma_prepare_rcv_buf(),
 minor clean up]
Signed-off-by: Grygorii Strashko <grygorii.strashko@ti.com>
---
 drivers/dma/Kconfig      |   7 ++
 drivers/dma/dma-uclass.c | 181 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
 include/dma-uclass.h     |  91 ++++++++++++++++-
 include/dma.h            | 260 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
 4 files changed, 532 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)

Comments

Simon Glass Nov. 13, 2018, 7:53 p.m. | #1
On 10 November 2018 at 13:06, Grygorii Strashko
<grygorii.strashko@ti.com> wrote:
> From: Álvaro Fernández Rojas <noltari@gmail.com>
>
> This adds channels support for dma controllers that have multiple channels
> which can transfer data to/from different devices (enet, usb...).
>
> DMA channle API:
>  dma_get_by_index()
>  dma_get_by_name()
>  dma_request()
>  dma_free()
>  dma_enable()
>  dma_disable()
>  dma_prepare_rcv_buf()
>  dma_receive()
>  dma_send()
>
> Reviewed-by: Tom Rini <trini@konsulko.com>
> Signed-off-by: Álvaro Fernández Rojas <noltari@gmail.com>
> [grygorii.strashko@ti.com: drop unused dma_get_by_index_platdata(),
>  add metadata to send/receive ops, add dma_prepare_rcv_buf(),
>  minor clean up]
> Signed-off-by: Grygorii Strashko <grygorii.strashko@ti.com>
> ---
>  drivers/dma/Kconfig      |   7 ++
>  drivers/dma/dma-uclass.c | 181 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
>  include/dma-uclass.h     |  91 ++++++++++++++++-
>  include/dma.h            | 260 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
>  4 files changed, 532 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)

Reviewed-by: Simon Glass <sjg@chromium.org>

Patch

diff --git a/drivers/dma/Kconfig b/drivers/dma/Kconfig
index 4ee6afa..b9b85c6 100644
--- a/drivers/dma/Kconfig
+++ b/drivers/dma/Kconfig
@@ -12,6 +12,13 @@  config DMA
 	  buses that is used to transfer data to and from memory.
 	  The uclass interface is defined in include/dma.h.
 
+config DMA_CHANNELS
+	bool "Enable DMA channels support"
+	depends on DMA
+	help
+	  Enable channels support for DMA. Some DMA controllers have multiple
+	  channels which can either transfer data to/from different devices.
+
 config TI_EDMA3
 	bool "TI EDMA3 driver"
 	help
diff --git a/drivers/dma/dma-uclass.c b/drivers/dma/dma-uclass.c
index 6c3506c..9c961cf 100644
--- a/drivers/dma/dma-uclass.c
+++ b/drivers/dma/dma-uclass.c
@@ -2,19 +2,192 @@ 
 /*
  * Direct Memory Access U-Class driver
  *
- * (C) Copyright 2015
- *     Texas Instruments Incorporated, <www.ti.com>
+ * Copyright (C) 2018 Álvaro Fernández Rojas <noltari@gmail.com>
+ * Copyright (C) 2015 - 2018 Texas Instruments Incorporated <www.ti.com>
+ * Written by Mugunthan V N <mugunthanvnm@ti.com>
  *
  * Author: Mugunthan V N <mugunthanvnm@ti.com>
  */
 
 #include <common.h>
 #include <dm.h>
-#include <dm/uclass-internal.h>
-#include <dm/device-internal.h>
+#include <dm/read.h>
 #include <dma-uclass.h>
+#include <dt-structs.h>
 #include <errno.h>
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_DMA_CHANNELS
+static inline struct dma_ops *dma_dev_ops(struct udevice *dev)
+{
+	return (struct dma_ops *)dev->driver->ops;
+}
+
+# if CONFIG_IS_ENABLED(OF_CONTROL)
+static int dma_of_xlate_default(struct dma *dma,
+				struct ofnode_phandle_args *args)
+{
+	debug("%s(dma=%p)\n", __func__, dma);
+
+	if (args->args_count > 1) {
+		pr_err("Invaild args_count: %d\n", args->args_count);
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	if (args->args_count)
+		dma->id = args->args[0];
+	else
+		dma->id = 0;
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int dma_get_by_index(struct udevice *dev, int index, struct dma *dma)
+{
+	int ret;
+	struct ofnode_phandle_args args;
+	struct udevice *dev_dma;
+	const struct dma_ops *ops;
+
+	debug("%s(dev=%p, index=%d, dma=%p)\n", __func__, dev, index, dma);
+
+	assert(dma);
+	dma->dev = NULL;
+
+	ret = dev_read_phandle_with_args(dev, "dmas", "#dma-cells", 0, index,
+					 &args);
+	if (ret) {
+		pr_err("%s: dev_read_phandle_with_args failed: err=%d\n",
+		       __func__, ret);
+		return ret;
+	}
+
+	ret = uclass_get_device_by_ofnode(UCLASS_DMA, args.node, &dev_dma);
+	if (ret) {
+		pr_err("%s: uclass_get_device_by_ofnode failed: err=%d\n",
+		       __func__, ret);
+		return ret;
+	}
+
+	dma->dev = dev_dma;
+
+	ops = dma_dev_ops(dev_dma);
+
+	if (ops->of_xlate)
+		ret = ops->of_xlate(dma, &args);
+	else
+		ret = dma_of_xlate_default(dma, &args);
+	if (ret) {
+		pr_err("of_xlate() failed: %d\n", ret);
+		return ret;
+	}
+
+	return dma_request(dev_dma, dma);
+}
+
+int dma_get_by_name(struct udevice *dev, const char *name, struct dma *dma)
+{
+	int index;
+
+	debug("%s(dev=%p, name=%s, dma=%p)\n", __func__, dev, name, dma);
+	dma->dev = NULL;
+
+	index = dev_read_stringlist_search(dev, "dma-names", name);
+	if (index < 0) {
+		pr_err("dev_read_stringlist_search() failed: %d\n", index);
+		return index;
+	}
+
+	return dma_get_by_index(dev, index, dma);
+}
+# endif /* OF_CONTROL */
+
+int dma_request(struct udevice *dev, struct dma *dma)
+{
+	struct dma_ops *ops = dma_dev_ops(dev);
+
+	debug("%s(dev=%p, dma=%p)\n", __func__, dev, dma);
+
+	dma->dev = dev;
+
+	if (!ops->request)
+		return 0;
+
+	return ops->request(dma);
+}
+
+int dma_free(struct dma *dma)
+{
+	struct dma_ops *ops = dma_dev_ops(dma->dev);
+
+	debug("%s(dma=%p)\n", __func__, dma);
+
+	if (!ops->free)
+		return 0;
+
+	return ops->free(dma);
+}
+
+int dma_enable(struct dma *dma)
+{
+	struct dma_ops *ops = dma_dev_ops(dma->dev);
+
+	debug("%s(dma=%p)\n", __func__, dma);
+
+	if (!ops->enable)
+		return -ENOSYS;
+
+	return ops->enable(dma);
+}
+
+int dma_disable(struct dma *dma)
+{
+	struct dma_ops *ops = dma_dev_ops(dma->dev);
+
+	debug("%s(dma=%p)\n", __func__, dma);
+
+	if (!ops->disable)
+		return -ENOSYS;
+
+	return ops->disable(dma);
+}
+
+int dma_prepare_rcv_buf(struct dma *dma, void *dst, size_t size)
+{
+	struct dma_ops *ops = dma_dev_ops(dma->dev);
+
+	debug("%s(dma=%p)\n", __func__, dma);
+
+	if (!ops->prepare_rcv_buf)
+		return -1;
+
+	return ops->prepare_rcv_buf(dma, dst, size);
+}
+
+int dma_receive(struct dma *dma, void **dst, void *metadata)
+{
+	struct dma_ops *ops = dma_dev_ops(dma->dev);
+
+	debug("%s(dma=%p)\n", __func__, dma);
+
+	if (!ops->receive)
+		return -ENOSYS;
+
+	return ops->receive(dma, dst, metadata);
+}
+
+int dma_send(struct dma *dma, void *src, size_t len, void *metadata)
+{
+	struct dma_ops *ops = dma_dev_ops(dma->dev);
+
+	debug("%s(dma=%p)\n", __func__, dma);
+
+	if (!ops->send)
+		return -ENOSYS;
+
+	return ops->send(dma, src, len, metadata);
+}
+#endif /* CONFIG_DMA_CHANNELS */
+
 int dma_get_device(u32 transfer_type, struct udevice **devp)
 {
 	struct udevice *dev;
diff --git a/include/dma-uclass.h b/include/dma-uclass.h
index 7bec5d3..16fc879 100644
--- a/include/dma-uclass.h
+++ b/include/dma-uclass.h
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@ 
 /* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+ */
 /*
  * Copyright (C) 2018 Álvaro Fernández Rojas <noltari@gmail.com>
- * Copyright (C) 2015 Texas Instruments Incorporated <www.ti.com>
+ * Copyright (C) 2015 - 2018 Texas Instruments Incorporated <www.ti.com>
  * Written by Mugunthan V N <mugunthanvnm@ti.com>
  *
  */
@@ -13,6 +13,8 @@ 
 
 #include <dma.h>
 
+struct ofnode_phandle_args;
+
 /*
  * struct dma_ops - Driver model DMA operations
  *
@@ -20,6 +22,93 @@ 
  * driver model.
  */
 struct dma_ops {
+#ifdef CONFIG_DMA_CHANNELS
+	/**
+	 * of_xlate - Translate a client's device-tree (OF) DMA specifier.
+	 *
+	 * The DMA core calls this function as the first step in implementing
+	 * a client's dma_get_by_*() call.
+	 *
+	 * If this function pointer is set to NULL, the DMA core will use a
+	 * default implementation, which assumes #dma-cells = <1>, and that
+	 * the DT cell contains a simple integer DMA Channel.
+	 *
+	 * At present, the DMA API solely supports device-tree. If this
+	 * changes, other xxx_xlate() functions may be added to support those
+	 * other mechanisms.
+	 *
+	 * @dma: The dma struct to hold the translation result.
+	 * @args:	The dma specifier values from device tree.
+	 * @return 0 if OK, or a negative error code.
+	 */
+	int (*of_xlate)(struct dma *dma,
+			struct ofnode_phandle_args *args);
+	/**
+	 * request - Request a translated DMA.
+	 *
+	 * The DMA core calls this function as the second step in
+	 * implementing a client's dma_get_by_*() call, following a successful
+	 * xxx_xlate() call, or as the only step in implementing a client's
+	 * dma_request() call.
+	 *
+	 * @dma: The DMA struct to request; this has been filled in by
+	 *   a previoux xxx_xlate() function call, or by the caller of
+	 *   dma_request().
+	 * @return 0 if OK, or a negative error code.
+	 */
+	int (*request)(struct dma *dma);
+	/**
+	 * free - Free a previously requested dma.
+	 *
+	 * This is the implementation of the client dma_free() API.
+	 *
+	 * @dma: The DMA to free.
+	 * @return 0 if OK, or a negative error code.
+	 */
+	int (*free)(struct dma *dma);
+	/**
+	 * enable() - Enable a DMA Channel.
+	 *
+	 * @dma: The DMA Channel to manipulate.
+	 * @return zero on success, or -ve error code.
+	 */
+	int (*enable)(struct dma *dma);
+	/**
+	 * disable() - Disable a DMA Channel.
+	 *
+	 * @dma: The DMA Channel to manipulate.
+	 * @return zero on success, or -ve error code.
+	 */
+	int (*disable)(struct dma *dma);
+	/**
+	 * add_rcv_buf() - Prepare/Add receive DMA buffer.
+	 *
+	 * @dma: The DMA Channel to manipulate.
+	 * @dst: The receive buffer pointer.
+	 * @size: The receive buffer size
+	 * @return zero on success, or -ve error code.
+	 */
+	int (*prepare_rcv_buf)(struct dma *dma, void *dst, size_t size);
+	/**
+	 * receive() - Receive a DMA transfer.
+	 *
+	 * @dma: The DMA Channel to manipulate.
+	 * @dst: The destination pointer.
+	 * @metadata: DMA driver's specific data
+	 * @return zero on success, or -ve error code.
+	 */
+	int (*receive)(struct dma *dma, void **dst, void *metadata);
+	/**
+	 * send() - Send a DMA transfer.
+	 *
+	 * @dma: The DMA Channel to manipulate.
+	 * @src: The source pointer.
+	 * @len: Length of the data to be sent (number of bytes).
+	 * @metadata: DMA driver's specific data
+	 * @return zero on success, or -ve error code.
+	 */
+	int (*send)(struct dma *dma, void *src, size_t len, void *metadata);
+#endif /* CONFIG_DMA_CHANNELS */
 	/**
 	 * transfer() - Issue a DMA transfer. The implementation must
 	 *   wait until the transfer is done.
diff --git a/include/dma.h b/include/dma.h
index 97fa0cf..d1c3d0d 100644
--- a/include/dma.h
+++ b/include/dma.h
@@ -1,12 +1,17 @@ 
 /* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+ */
 /*
- * (C) Copyright 2015
- *     Texas Instruments Incorporated, <www.ti.com>
+ * Copyright (C) 2018 Álvaro Fernández Rojas <noltari@gmail.com>
+ * Copyright (C) 2015 - 2018 Texas Instruments Incorporated <www.ti.com>
+ * Written by Mugunthan V N <mugunthanvnm@ti.com>
+ *
  */
 
 #ifndef _DMA_H_
 #define _DMA_H_
 
+#include <linux/errno.h>
+#include <linux/types.h>
+
 /*
  * enum dma_direction - dma transfer direction indicator
  * @DMA_MEM_TO_MEM: Memcpy mode
@@ -36,6 +41,257 @@  struct dma_dev_priv {
 	u32 supported;
 };
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_DMA_CHANNELS
+/**
+ * A DMA is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware
+ * subsystems to access main system memory, independent of the CPU.
+ * DMA channels are typically generated externally to the HW module
+ * consuming them, by an entity this API calls a DMA provider. This API
+ * provides a standard means for drivers to enable and disable DMAs, and to
+ * copy, send and receive data using DMA.
+ *
+ * A driver that implements UCLASS_DMA is a DMA provider. A provider will
+ * often implement multiple separate DMAs, since the hardware it manages
+ * often has this capability. dma_uclass.h describes the interface which
+ * DMA providers must implement.
+ *
+ * DMA consumers/clients are the HW modules driven by the DMA channels. This
+ * header file describes the API used by drivers for those HW modules.
+ *
+ * DMA consumer DMA_MEM_TO_DEV (transmit) usage example (based on networking).
+ * Note. dma_send() is sync operation always -  it'll start transfer and will
+ * poll for it to complete:
+ *	- get/request dma channel
+ *	struct dma dma_tx;
+ *	ret = dma_get_by_name(common->dev, "tx0", &dma_tx);
+ *	if (ret) ...
+ *
+ *	- enable dma channel
+ *	ret = dma_enable(&dma_tx);
+ *	if (ret) ...
+ *
+ *	- dma transmit DMA_MEM_TO_DEV.
+ *	struct ti_drv_packet_data packet_data;
+ *
+ *	packet_data.opt1 = val1;
+ *	packet_data.opt2 = val2;
+ *	ret = dma_send(&dma_tx, packet, length, &packet_data);
+ *	if (ret) ..
+ *
+ * DMA consumer DMA_DEV_TO_MEM (receive) usage example (based on networking).
+ * Note. dma_receive() is sync operation always - it'll start transfer
+ * (if required) and will poll for it to complete (or for any previously
+ * configured dev2mem transfer to complete):
+ *	- get/request dma channel
+ *	struct dma dma_rx;
+ *	ret = dma_get_by_name(common->dev, "rx0", &dma_rx);
+ *	if (ret) ...
+ *
+ *	- enable dma channel
+ *	ret = dma_enable(&dma_rx);
+ *	if (ret) ...
+ *
+ *	- dma receive DMA_DEV_TO_MEM.
+ *	struct ti_drv_packet_data packet_data;
+ *
+ *	len = dma_receive(&dma_rx, (void **)packet, &packet_data);
+ *	if (ret < 0) ...
+ *
+ * DMA consumer DMA_DEV_TO_MEM (receive) zero-copy usage example (based on
+ * networking). Networking subsystem allows to configure and use few receive
+ * buffers (dev2mem), as Networking RX DMA channels usually implemented
+ * as streaming interface
+ *	- get/request dma channel
+ *	struct dma dma_rx;
+ *	ret = dma_get_by_name(common->dev, "rx0", &dma_rx);
+ *	if (ret) ...
+ *
+ *	for (i = 0; i < RX_DESC_NUM; i++) {
+ *		ret = dma_prepare_rcv_buf(&dma_rx,
+ *					  net_rx_packets[i],
+ *					  RX_BUF_SIZE);
+ *		if (ret) ...
+ *	}
+ *
+ *	- enable dma channel
+ *	ret = dma_enable(&dma_rx);
+ *	if (ret) ...
+ *
+ *	- dma receive DMA_DEV_TO_MEM.
+ *	struct ti_drv_packet_data packet_data;
+ *
+ *	len = dma_receive(&dma_rx, (void **)packet, &packet_data);
+ *	if (ret < 0) ..
+ *
+ *	-- process packet --
+ *
+ *	- return buffer back to DAM channel
+ *	ret = dma_prepare_rcv_buf(&dma_rx,
+ *				  net_rx_packets[rx_next],
+ *				  RX_BUF_SIZE);
+ */
+
+struct udevice;
+
+/**
+ * struct dma - A handle to (allowing control of) a single DMA.
+ *
+ * Clients provide storage for DMA handles. The content of the structure is
+ * managed solely by the DMA API and DMA drivers. A DMA struct is
+ * initialized by "get"ing the DMA struct. The DMA struct is passed to all
+ * other DMA APIs to identify which DMA channel to operate upon.
+ *
+ * @dev: The device which implements the DMA channel.
+ * @id: The DMA channel ID within the provider.
+ *
+ * Currently, the DMA API assumes that a single integer ID is enough to
+ * identify and configure any DMA channel for any DMA provider. If this
+ * assumption becomes invalid in the future, the struct could be expanded to
+ * either (a) add more fields to allow DMA providers to store additional
+ * information, or (b) replace the id field with an opaque pointer, which the
+ * provider would dynamically allocated during its .of_xlate op, and process
+ * during is .request op. This may require the addition of an extra op to clean
+ * up the allocation.
+ */
+struct dma {
+	struct udevice *dev;
+	/*
+	 * Written by of_xlate. We assume a single id is enough for now. In the
+	 * future, we might add more fields here.
+	 */
+	unsigned long id;
+};
+
+# if CONFIG_IS_ENABLED(OF_CONTROL) && CONFIG_IS_ENABLED(DMA)
+/**
+ * dma_get_by_index - Get/request a DMA by integer index.
+ *
+ * This looks up and requests a DMA. The index is relative to the client
+ * device; each device is assumed to have n DMAs associated with it somehow,
+ * and this function finds and requests one of them. The mapping of client
+ * device DMA indices to provider DMAs may be via device-tree properties,
+ * board-provided mapping tables, or some other mechanism.
+ *
+ * @dev:	The client device.
+ * @index:	The index of the DMA to request, within the client's list of
+ *		DMA channels.
+ * @dma:	A pointer to a DMA struct to initialize.
+ * @return 0 if OK, or a negative error code.
+ */
+int dma_get_by_index(struct udevice *dev, int index, struct dma *dma);
+
+/**
+ * dma_get_by_name - Get/request a DMA by name.
+ *
+ * This looks up and requests a DMA. The name is relative to the client
+ * device; each device is assumed to have n DMAs associated with it somehow,
+ * and this function finds and requests one of them. The mapping of client
+ * device DMA names to provider DMAs may be via device-tree properties,
+ * board-provided mapping tables, or some other mechanism.
+ *
+ * @dev:	The client device.
+ * @name:	The name of the DMA to request, within the client's list of
+ *		DMA channels.
+ * @dma:	A pointer to a DMA struct to initialize.
+ * @return 0 if OK, or a negative error code.
+ */
+int dma_get_by_name(struct udevice *dev, const char *name, struct dma *dma);
+# else
+static inline int dma_get_by_index(struct udevice *dev, int index,
+				   struct dma *dma)
+{
+	return -ENOSYS;
+}
+
+static inline int dma_get_by_name(struct udevice *dev, const char *name,
+				  struct dma *dma)
+{
+	return -ENOSYS;
+}
+# endif
+
+/**
+ * dma_request - Request a DMA by provider-specific ID.
+ *
+ * This requests a DMA using a provider-specific ID. Generally, this function
+ * should not be used, since dma_get_by_index/name() provide an interface that
+ * better separates clients from intimate knowledge of DMA providers.
+ * However, this function may be useful in core SoC-specific code.
+ *
+ * @dev: The DMA provider device.
+ * @dma: A pointer to a DMA struct to initialize. The caller must
+ *	 have already initialized any field in this struct which the
+ *	 DMA provider uses to identify the DMA channel.
+ * @return 0 if OK, or a negative error code.
+ */
+int dma_request(struct udevice *dev, struct dma *dma);
+
+/**
+ * dma_free - Free a previously requested DMA.
+ *
+ * @dma: A DMA struct that was previously successfully requested by
+ *	 dma_request/get_by_*().
+ * @return 0 if OK, or a negative error code.
+ */
+int dma_free(struct dma *dma);
+
+/**
+ * dma_enable() - Enable (turn on) a DMA channel.
+ *
+ * @dma: A DMA struct that was previously successfully requested by
+ *	 dma_request/get_by_*().
+ * @return zero on success, or -ve error code.
+ */
+int dma_enable(struct dma *dma);
+
+/**
+ * dma_disable() - Disable (turn off) a DMA channel.
+ *
+ * @dma: A DMA struct that was previously successfully requested by
+ *	 dma_request/get_by_*().
+ * @return zero on success, or -ve error code.
+ */
+int dma_disable(struct dma *dma);
+
+/**
+ * dma_prepare_rcv_buf() - Prepare/add receive DMA buffer.
+ *
+ * It allows to implement zero-copy async DMA_DEV_TO_MEM (receive) transactions
+ * if supported by DMA providers.
+ *
+ * @dma: A DMA struct that was previously successfully requested by
+ *	 dma_request/get_by_*().
+ * @dst: The receive buffer pointer.
+ * @size: The receive buffer size
+ * @return zero on success, or -ve error code.
+ */
+int dma_prepare_rcv_buf(struct dma *dma, void *dst, size_t size);
+
+/**
+ * dma_receive() - Receive a DMA transfer.
+ *
+ * @dma: A DMA struct that was previously successfully requested by
+ *	 dma_request/get_by_*().
+ * @dst: The destination pointer.
+ * @metadata: DMA driver's channel specific data
+ * @return length of received data on success, or zero - no data,
+ * or -ve error code.
+ */
+int dma_receive(struct dma *dma, void **dst, void *metadata);
+
+/**
+ * dma_send() - Send a DMA transfer.
+ *
+ * @dma: A DMA struct that was previously successfully requested by
+ *	 dma_request/get_by_*().
+ * @src: The source pointer.
+ * @len: Length of the data to be sent (number of bytes).
+ * @metadata: DMA driver's channel specific data
+ * @return zero on success, or -ve error code.
+ */
+int dma_send(struct dma *dma, void *src, size_t len, void *metadata);
+#endif /* CONFIG_DMA_CHANNELS */
+
 /*
  * dma_get_device - get a DMA device which supports transfer
  * type of transfer_type