[05/10] cpufreq: intel_pstate: Implement VLP controller statistics and status calculation.

Message ID 20200310214203.26459-6-currojerez@riseup.net
State New
Headers show
Series
  • Untitled series #38517
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Commit Message

Francisco Jerez March 10, 2020, 9:41 p.m.
The goal of the helper code introduced here is to compute two
informational data structures: struct vlp_input_stats aggregating
various scheduling and PM statistics gathered in every call of the
update_util() hook, and struct vlp_status_sample which contains status
information derived from the former indicating whether the system is
likely to have an IO or CPU bottleneck.  This will be used as main
heuristic input by the new variably low-pass filtering controller (AKA
VLP) that will assist the HWP at finding a reasonably energy-efficient
P-state given the additional information available to the kernel about
I/O utilization and scheduling behavior.

Signed-off-by: Francisco Jerez <currojerez@riseup.net>
---
 drivers/cpufreq/intel_pstate.c | 230 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 230 insertions(+)

Patch

diff --git a/drivers/cpufreq/intel_pstate.c b/drivers/cpufreq/intel_pstate.c
index 8cb5bf419b40..12ee350db2a9 100644
--- a/drivers/cpufreq/intel_pstate.c
+++ b/drivers/cpufreq/intel_pstate.c
@@ -19,6 +19,7 @@ 
 #include <linux/list.h>
 #include <linux/cpu.h>
 #include <linux/cpufreq.h>
+#include <linux/debugfs.h>
 #include <linux/sysfs.h>
 #include <linux/types.h>
 #include <linux/fs.h>
@@ -33,6 +34,8 @@ 
 #include <asm/cpufeature.h>
 #include <asm/intel-family.h>
 
+#include "../../kernel/sched/sched.h"
+
 #define INTEL_PSTATE_SAMPLING_INTERVAL	(10 * NSEC_PER_MSEC)
 
 #define INTEL_CPUFREQ_TRANSITION_LATENCY	20000
@@ -59,6 +62,11 @@  static inline int32_t mul_fp(int32_t x, int32_t y)
 	return ((int64_t)x * (int64_t)y) >> FRAC_BITS;
 }
 
+static inline int rnd_fp(int32_t x)
+{
+	return (x + (1 << (FRAC_BITS - 1))) >> FRAC_BITS;
+}
+
 static inline int32_t div_fp(s64 x, s64 y)
 {
 	return div64_s64((int64_t)x << FRAC_BITS, y);
@@ -169,6 +177,49 @@  struct vid_data {
 	int32_t ratio;
 };
 
+/**
+ * Scheduling and PM statistics gathered by update_vlp_sample() at
+ * every call of the VLP update_state() hook, used as heuristic
+ * inputs.
+ */
+struct vlp_input_stats {
+	int32_t realtime_count;
+	int32_t io_wait_count;
+	uint32_t max_response_frequency_hz;
+	uint32_t last_response_frequency_hz;
+};
+
+enum vlp_status {
+	VLP_BOTTLENECK_IO = 1 << 0,
+	/*
+	 * XXX - Add other status bits here indicating a CPU or TDP
+	 * bottleneck.
+	 */
+};
+
+/**
+ * Heuristic status information calculated by get_vlp_status_sample()
+ * from struct vlp_input_stats above, indicating whether the system
+ * has a potential IO or latency bottleneck.
+ */
+struct vlp_status_sample {
+	enum vlp_status value;
+	int32_t realtime_avg;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct vlp_data - VLP controller parameters and state.
+ * @sample_interval_ns:	 Update interval in ns.
+ * @sample_frequency_hz: Reciprocal of the update interval in Hz.
+ */
+struct vlp_data {
+	s64 sample_interval_ns;
+	int32_t sample_frequency_hz;
+
+	struct vlp_input_stats stats;
+	struct vlp_status_sample status;
+};
+
 /**
  * struct global_params - Global parameters, mostly tunable via sysfs.
  * @no_turbo:		Whether or not to use turbo P-states.
@@ -239,6 +290,7 @@  struct cpudata {
 
 	struct pstate_data pstate;
 	struct vid_data vid;
+	struct vlp_data vlp;
 
 	u64	last_update;
 	u64	last_sample_time;
@@ -268,6 +320,18 @@  struct cpudata {
 
 static struct cpudata **all_cpu_data;
 
+/**
+ * struct vlp_params - VLP controller static configuration
+ * @sample_interval_ms:	     Update interval in ms.
+ * @avg*_hz:		     Exponential averaging frequencies of the various
+ *			     low-pass filters as an integer in Hz.
+ */
+struct vlp_params {
+	int sample_interval_ms;
+	int avg_hz;
+	int debug;
+};
+
 /**
  * struct pstate_funcs - Per CPU model specific callbacks
  * @get_max:		Callback to get maximum non turbo effective P state
@@ -296,6 +360,11 @@  struct pstate_funcs {
 };
 
 static struct pstate_funcs pstate_funcs __read_mostly;
+static struct vlp_params vlp_params __read_mostly = {
+	.sample_interval_ms = 10,
+	.avg_hz = 2,
+	.debug = 0,
+};
 
 static int hwp_active __read_mostly;
 static int hwp_mode_bdw __read_mostly;
@@ -1793,6 +1862,167 @@  static inline int32_t get_target_pstate(struct cpudata *cpu)
 	return target;
 }
 
+/**
+ * Initialize the struct vlp_data of the specified CPU to the defaults
+ * calculated from @vlp_params.
+ */
+static void intel_pstate_reset_vlp(struct cpudata *cpu)
+{
+	struct vlp_data *vlp = &cpu->vlp;
+
+	vlp->sample_interval_ns = vlp_params.sample_interval_ms * NSEC_PER_MSEC;
+	vlp->sample_frequency_hz = max(1u, (uint32_t)MSEC_PER_SEC /
+					   vlp_params.sample_interval_ms);
+	vlp->stats.last_response_frequency_hz = vlp_params.avg_hz;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Fixed point representation with twice the usual number of
+ * fractional bits.
+ */
+#define DFRAC_BITS 16
+#define DFRAC_ONE (1 << DFRAC_BITS)
+#define DFRAC_MAX_INT (0u - (uint32_t)DFRAC_ONE)
+
+/**
+ * Fast but rather inaccurate piecewise-linear approximation of a
+ * fixed-point inverse exponential:
+ *
+ *  exp2n(p) = int_tofp(1) * 2 ^ (-p / DFRAC_ONE) + O(1)
+ *
+ * The error term should be lower in magnitude than 0.044.
+ */
+static int32_t exp2n(uint32_t p)
+{
+	if (p < 32 * DFRAC_ONE) {
+		/* Interpolate between 2^-floor(p) and 2^-ceil(p). */
+		const uint32_t floor_p = p >> DFRAC_BITS;
+		const uint32_t ceil_p = (p + DFRAC_ONE - 1) >> DFRAC_BITS;
+		const uint64_t frac_p = p - (floor_p << DFRAC_BITS);
+
+		return ((int_tofp(1) >> floor_p) * (DFRAC_ONE - frac_p) +
+			(ceil_p >= 32 ? 0 : int_tofp(1) >> ceil_p) * frac_p) >>
+			DFRAC_BITS;
+	}
+
+	/* Short-circuit to avoid overflow. */
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Calculate the exponential averaging weight for a new sample based
+ * on the requested averaging frequency @hz and the delay since the
+ * last update.
+ */
+static int32_t get_last_sample_avg_weight(struct cpudata *cpu, unsigned int hz)
+{
+	/*
+	 * Approximate, but saves several 64-bit integer divisions
+	 * below and should be fully evaluated at compile-time.
+	 * Causes the exponential averaging to have an effective base
+	 * of 1.90702343749, which has little functional implications
+	 * as long as the hz parameter is scaled accordingly.
+	 */
+	const uint32_t ns_per_s_shift = order_base_2(NSEC_PER_SEC);
+	const uint64_t delta_ns = cpu->sample.time - cpu->last_sample_time;
+
+	return exp2n(min((uint64_t)DFRAC_MAX_INT,
+			 (hz * delta_ns) >> (ns_per_s_shift - DFRAC_BITS)));
+}
+
+/**
+ * Calculate some status information heuristically based on the struct
+ * vlp_input_stats statistics gathered by the update_state() hook.
+ */
+static const struct vlp_status_sample *get_vlp_status_sample(
+	struct cpudata *cpu, const int32_t po)
+{
+	struct vlp_data *vlp = &cpu->vlp;
+	struct vlp_input_stats *stats = &vlp->stats;
+	struct vlp_status_sample *last_status = &vlp->status;
+
+	/*
+	 * Calculate the VLP_BOTTLENECK_IO state bit, which indicates
+	 * whether some IO device driver has requested a PM response
+	 * frequency bound, typically due to the device being under
+	 * close to full utilization, which should cause the
+	 * controller to make a more conservative trade-off between
+	 * latency and energy usage, since performance isn't
+	 * guaranteed to scale further with increasing CPU frequency
+	 * whenever the system is close to IO-bound.
+	 *
+	 * Note that the maximum achievable response frequency is
+	 * limited by the sampling frequency of the controller,
+	 * response frequency requests greater than that will be
+	 * promoted to infinity (i.e. no low-pass filtering) in order
+	 * to avoid violating the response frequency constraint
+	 * provided via PM QoS.
+	 */
+	const bool bottleneck_io = stats->max_response_frequency_hz <
+				   vlp->sample_frequency_hz;
+
+	/*
+	 * Calculate the realtime statistic that tracks the
+	 * exponentially-averaged rate of occurrence of
+	 * latency-sensitive events (like wake-ups from IO wait).
+	 */
+	const uint64_t delta_ns = cpu->sample.time - cpu->last_sample_time;
+	const int32_t realtime_sample =
+		div_fp((uint64_t)(stats->realtime_count +
+				  (bottleneck_io ? 0 : stats->io_wait_count)) *
+		       NSEC_PER_SEC,
+		       100 * delta_ns);
+	const int32_t alpha = get_last_sample_avg_weight(cpu,
+							 vlp_params.avg_hz);
+	const int32_t realtime_avg = realtime_sample +
+		mul_fp(alpha, last_status->realtime_avg - realtime_sample);
+
+	/* Consume the input statistics. */
+	stats->io_wait_count = 0;
+	stats->realtime_count = 0;
+	if (bottleneck_io)
+		stats->last_response_frequency_hz =
+			stats->max_response_frequency_hz;
+	stats->max_response_frequency_hz = 0;
+
+	/* Update the state of the controller. */
+	last_status->realtime_avg = realtime_avg;
+	last_status->value = (bottleneck_io ? VLP_BOTTLENECK_IO : 0);
+
+	/* Update state used for tracing. */
+	cpu->sample.busy_scaled = int_tofp(stats->max_response_frequency_hz);
+	cpu->iowait_boost = realtime_avg;
+
+	return last_status;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Collect some scheduling and PM statistics in response to an
+ * update_state() call.
+ */
+static bool update_vlp_sample(struct cpudata *cpu, u64 time, unsigned int flags)
+{
+	struct vlp_input_stats *stats = &cpu->vlp.stats;
+
+	/* Update PM QoS request. */
+	const uint32_t resp_hz = cpu_response_frequency_qos_limit();
+
+	stats->max_response_frequency_hz = !resp_hz ? UINT_MAX :
+		max(stats->max_response_frequency_hz, resp_hz);
+
+	/* Update scheduling statistics. */
+	if ((flags & SCHED_CPUFREQ_IOWAIT))
+		stats->io_wait_count++;
+
+	if (cpu_rq(cpu->cpu)->rt.rt_nr_running)
+		stats->realtime_count++;
+
+	/* Return whether a P-state update is due. */
+	return smp_processor_id() == cpu->cpu &&
+		time - cpu->sample.time >= cpu->vlp.sample_interval_ns &&
+		intel_pstate_sample(cpu, time);
+}
+
 static int intel_pstate_prepare_request(struct cpudata *cpu, int pstate)
 {
 	int min_pstate = max(cpu->pstate.min_pstate, cpu->min_perf_ratio);