stop_machine: avoid potential race behaviour

Message ID 20191007104536.27276-1-mark.rutland@arm.com
State Accepted
Commit b1fc5833357524d5d342737913dbe32ff3557bc5
Headers show
Series
  • stop_machine: avoid potential race behaviour
Related show

Commit Message

Mark Rutland Oct. 7, 2019, 10:45 a.m.
Both multi_cpu_stop() and set_state() access multi_stop_data::state
racily using plain accesses. These are subject to compiler
transformations which could break the intended behaviour of the code,
and this situation is detected by KCSAN on both arm64 and x86 (splats
below).

Let's improve matters by using READ_ONCE() and WRITE_ONCE() to ensure
that the compiler cannot elide, replay, or tear loads and stores. In
multi_cpu_stop() we expect the two loads of multi_stop_data::state to be
a consistent value, so we snapshot the value into a temporary variable
to ensure this.

The state transitions are serialized by atomic manipulation of
multi_stop_data::num_threads, and other fields in multi_stop_data are
not modified while subject to concurrent reads.

KCSAN splat on arm64:

| BUG: KCSAN: data-race in multi_cpu_stop+0xa8/0x198 and set_state+0x80/0xb0
|
| write to 0xffff00001003bd00 of 4 bytes by task 24 on cpu 3:
|  set_state+0x80/0xb0
|  multi_cpu_stop+0x16c/0x198
|  cpu_stopper_thread+0x170/0x298
|  smpboot_thread_fn+0x40c/0x560
|  kthread+0x1a8/0x1b0
|  ret_from_fork+0x10/0x18
|
| read to 0xffff00001003bd00 of 4 bytes by task 14 on cpu 1:
|  multi_cpu_stop+0xa8/0x198
|  cpu_stopper_thread+0x170/0x298
|  smpboot_thread_fn+0x40c/0x560
|  kthread+0x1a8/0x1b0
|  ret_from_fork+0x10/0x18
|
| Reported by Kernel Concurrency Sanitizer on:
| CPU: 1 PID: 14 Comm: migration/1 Not tainted 5.3.0-00007-g67ab35a199f4-dirty #3
| Hardware name: linux,dummy-virt (DT)

KCSAN splat on x86:

| write to 0xffffb0bac0013e18 of 4 bytes by task 19 on cpu 2:
|  set_state kernel/stop_machine.c:170 [inline]
|  ack_state kernel/stop_machine.c:177 [inline]
|  multi_cpu_stop+0x1a4/0x220 kernel/stop_machine.c:227
|  cpu_stopper_thread+0x19e/0x280 kernel/stop_machine.c:516
|  smpboot_thread_fn+0x1a8/0x300 kernel/smpboot.c:165
|  kthread+0x1b5/0x200 kernel/kthread.c:255
|  ret_from_fork+0x35/0x40 arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S:352
|
| read to 0xffffb0bac0013e18 of 4 bytes by task 44 on cpu 7:
|  multi_cpu_stop+0xb4/0x220 kernel/stop_machine.c:213
|  cpu_stopper_thread+0x19e/0x280 kernel/stop_machine.c:516
|  smpboot_thread_fn+0x1a8/0x300 kernel/smpboot.c:165
|  kthread+0x1b5/0x200 kernel/kthread.c:255
|  ret_from_fork+0x35/0x40 arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S:352
|
| Reported by Kernel Concurrency Sanitizer on:
| CPU: 7 PID: 44 Comm: migration/7 Not tainted 5.3.0+ #1
| Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.12.0-1 04/01/2014

Signed-off-by: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>

Cc: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
---
 kernel/stop_machine.c | 10 ++++++----
 1 file changed, 6 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)

-- 
2.11.0

Comments

Marco Elver Oct. 7, 2019, 11:01 a.m. | #1
On Mon, 7 Oct 2019 at 12:45, Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com> wrote:
>

> Both multi_cpu_stop() and set_state() access multi_stop_data::state

> racily using plain accesses. These are subject to compiler

> transformations which could break the intended behaviour of the code,

> and this situation is detected by KCSAN on both arm64 and x86 (splats

> below).

>

> Let's improve matters by using READ_ONCE() and WRITE_ONCE() to ensure

> that the compiler cannot elide, replay, or tear loads and stores. In

> multi_cpu_stop() we expect the two loads of multi_stop_data::state to be

> a consistent value, so we snapshot the value into a temporary variable

> to ensure this.

>

> The state transitions are serialized by atomic manipulation of

> multi_stop_data::num_threads, and other fields in multi_stop_data are

> not modified while subject to concurrent reads.

>

> KCSAN splat on arm64:

>

> | BUG: KCSAN: data-race in multi_cpu_stop+0xa8/0x198 and set_state+0x80/0xb0

> |

> | write to 0xffff00001003bd00 of 4 bytes by task 24 on cpu 3:

> |  set_state+0x80/0xb0

> |  multi_cpu_stop+0x16c/0x198

> |  cpu_stopper_thread+0x170/0x298

> |  smpboot_thread_fn+0x40c/0x560

> |  kthread+0x1a8/0x1b0

> |  ret_from_fork+0x10/0x18

> |

> | read to 0xffff00001003bd00 of 4 bytes by task 14 on cpu 1:

> |  multi_cpu_stop+0xa8/0x198

> |  cpu_stopper_thread+0x170/0x298

> |  smpboot_thread_fn+0x40c/0x560

> |  kthread+0x1a8/0x1b0

> |  ret_from_fork+0x10/0x18

> |

> | Reported by Kernel Concurrency Sanitizer on:

> | CPU: 1 PID: 14 Comm: migration/1 Not tainted 5.3.0-00007-g67ab35a199f4-dirty #3

> | Hardware name: linux,dummy-virt (DT)

>

> KCSAN splat on x86:

>

> | write to 0xffffb0bac0013e18 of 4 bytes by task 19 on cpu 2:

> |  set_state kernel/stop_machine.c:170 [inline]

> |  ack_state kernel/stop_machine.c:177 [inline]

> |  multi_cpu_stop+0x1a4/0x220 kernel/stop_machine.c:227

> |  cpu_stopper_thread+0x19e/0x280 kernel/stop_machine.c:516

> |  smpboot_thread_fn+0x1a8/0x300 kernel/smpboot.c:165

> |  kthread+0x1b5/0x200 kernel/kthread.c:255

> |  ret_from_fork+0x35/0x40 arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S:352

> |

> | read to 0xffffb0bac0013e18 of 4 bytes by task 44 on cpu 7:

> |  multi_cpu_stop+0xb4/0x220 kernel/stop_machine.c:213

> |  cpu_stopper_thread+0x19e/0x280 kernel/stop_machine.c:516

> |  smpboot_thread_fn+0x1a8/0x300 kernel/smpboot.c:165

> |  kthread+0x1b5/0x200 kernel/kthread.c:255

> |  ret_from_fork+0x35/0x40 arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S:352

> |

> | Reported by Kernel Concurrency Sanitizer on:

> | CPU: 7 PID: 44 Comm: migration/7 Not tainted 5.3.0+ #1

> | Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.12.0-1 04/01/2014

>

> Signed-off-by: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>

> Cc: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>

> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>

> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>


Thanks for fixing this!

Acked-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>


> ---

>  kernel/stop_machine.c | 10 ++++++----

>  1 file changed, 6 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)

>

> diff --git a/kernel/stop_machine.c b/kernel/stop_machine.c

> index c7031a22aa7b..998d50ee2d9b 100644

> --- a/kernel/stop_machine.c

> +++ b/kernel/stop_machine.c

> @@ -7,6 +7,7 @@

>   * Copyright (C) 2010          SUSE Linux Products GmbH

>   * Copyright (C) 2010          Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>

>   */

> +#include <linux/compiler.h>

>  #include <linux/completion.h>

>  #include <linux/cpu.h>

>  #include <linux/init.h>

> @@ -167,7 +168,7 @@ static void set_state(struct multi_stop_data *msdata,

>         /* Reset ack counter. */

>         atomic_set(&msdata->thread_ack, msdata->num_threads);

>         smp_wmb();

> -       msdata->state = newstate;

> +       WRITE_ONCE(msdata->state, newstate);

>  }

>

>  /* Last one to ack a state moves to the next state. */

> @@ -186,7 +187,7 @@ void __weak stop_machine_yield(const struct cpumask *cpumask)

>  static int multi_cpu_stop(void *data)

>  {

>         struct multi_stop_data *msdata = data;

> -       enum multi_stop_state curstate = MULTI_STOP_NONE;

> +       enum multi_stop_state newstate, curstate = MULTI_STOP_NONE;

>         int cpu = smp_processor_id(), err = 0;

>         const struct cpumask *cpumask;

>         unsigned long flags;

> @@ -210,8 +211,9 @@ static int multi_cpu_stop(void *data)

>         do {

>                 /* Chill out and ensure we re-read multi_stop_state. */

>                 stop_machine_yield(cpumask);

> -               if (msdata->state != curstate) {

> -                       curstate = msdata->state;

> +               newstate = READ_ONCE(msdata->state);

> +               if (newstate != curstate) {

> +                       curstate = newstate;

>                         switch (curstate) {

>                         case MULTI_STOP_DISABLE_IRQ:

>                                 local_irq_disable();

> --

> 2.11.0

>
Peter Zijlstra Oct. 8, 2019, 8:36 a.m. | #2
On Mon, Oct 07, 2019 at 11:45:36AM +0100, Mark Rutland wrote:
> Both multi_cpu_stop() and set_state() access multi_stop_data::state

> racily using plain accesses. These are subject to compiler

> transformations which could break the intended behaviour of the code,

> and this situation is detected by KCSAN on both arm64 and x86 (splats

> below).


I really don't think there is anything the compiler can do wrong here.

That is, I'm thinking I'd like to get this called out as a false-positive.

That said, the patch looks obviously fine and will help with the
validation effort so no real objection there.
Mark Rutland Oct. 14, 2019, 10:09 a.m. | #3
On Tue, Oct 08, 2019 at 10:36:37AM +0200, Peter Zijlstra wrote:
> On Mon, Oct 07, 2019 at 11:45:36AM +0100, Mark Rutland wrote:

> > Both multi_cpu_stop() and set_state() access multi_stop_data::state

> > racily using plain accesses. These are subject to compiler

> > transformations which could break the intended behaviour of the code,

> > and this situation is detected by KCSAN on both arm64 and x86 (splats

> > below).

> 

> I really don't think there is anything the compiler can do wrong here.

> 

> That is, I'm thinking I'd like to get this called out as a false-positive.


I agree that in practice, it's very unlikely this would go wrong.

There are some things the compiler could do, e.g. with re-ordering of
volatile and plain reads of the same variable:

  https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20191003161233.GB38140@lakrids.cambridge.arm.com/

... and while I agree that's vanishingly unlikely to happen here, I
couldn't say how to rule that out without ruling out cases that would
actually blow up in practice.

> That said, the patch looks obviously fine and will help with the

> validation effort so no real objection there.


Great! Can I take that as an Acked-by?

I assume this should go via the tip tree.

Thanks,
Mark.

Patch

diff --git a/kernel/stop_machine.c b/kernel/stop_machine.c
index c7031a22aa7b..998d50ee2d9b 100644
--- a/kernel/stop_machine.c
+++ b/kernel/stop_machine.c
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@ 
  * Copyright (C) 2010		SUSE Linux Products GmbH
  * Copyright (C) 2010		Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
  */
+#include <linux/compiler.h>
 #include <linux/completion.h>
 #include <linux/cpu.h>
 #include <linux/init.h>
@@ -167,7 +168,7 @@  static void set_state(struct multi_stop_data *msdata,
 	/* Reset ack counter. */
 	atomic_set(&msdata->thread_ack, msdata->num_threads);
 	smp_wmb();
-	msdata->state = newstate;
+	WRITE_ONCE(msdata->state, newstate);
 }
 
 /* Last one to ack a state moves to the next state. */
@@ -186,7 +187,7 @@  void __weak stop_machine_yield(const struct cpumask *cpumask)
 static int multi_cpu_stop(void *data)
 {
 	struct multi_stop_data *msdata = data;
-	enum multi_stop_state curstate = MULTI_STOP_NONE;
+	enum multi_stop_state newstate, curstate = MULTI_STOP_NONE;
 	int cpu = smp_processor_id(), err = 0;
 	const struct cpumask *cpumask;
 	unsigned long flags;
@@ -210,8 +211,9 @@  static int multi_cpu_stop(void *data)
 	do {
 		/* Chill out and ensure we re-read multi_stop_state. */
 		stop_machine_yield(cpumask);
-		if (msdata->state != curstate) {
-			curstate = msdata->state;
+		newstate = READ_ONCE(msdata->state);
+		if (newstate != curstate) {
+			curstate = newstate;
 			switch (curstate) {
 			case MULTI_STOP_DISABLE_IRQ:
 				local_irq_disable();